Guo GR you review the history of Zhengzhou office furniture

Office furniture is the people's daily life and work are inseparable from the thing, then its history then what is it? Here are my knowledge from a variety of sources, some of the furniture, in order to increase their understanding, but also to benefit
Furniture term them the meaning of the Word includes a wide, but generally refers to the manufacture by the Carpenter's "chairs". Ancient people sat on the floor, bed-oriented interior, floor seats, then screen appears, a few, such as furniture, bed is both bedding and desks, based on extension of the couch. To the Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han and Wei periods, there has been too much change, there are benches, tables appear, but not the mainstream until the Han dynasty Hu into the Central Plains area, southern and Northern Dynasties period, high chairs come, sit on a pedal became popular. Qi forms to the Tang dynasty are still two parallel, high tables, chairs, stools, has been used by many people, but sat on the floor still is many people's daily habits. Really started to pedal sitting from the Song dynasty, but with the sitting furniture came into being. Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, for the production of furniture, design excellence, especially in Ming and Qing period, the heyday of traditional furniture.
Characteristics of Chinese furniture is that it not only through the evolution of the historical period, its use value of service to humanity, and lectin in its particular environment of different artistic styles. In the existing multitude of Ming and Qing dynasty furniture, manifestation of the exquisite craft value, very high artistic value and appreciate the heavy historical and cultural value. Which makes the furniture a proud and valued cultural heritage of the Chinese nation.
Dynasty lifestyle living habits and were later vary greatly, so we could hardly see the song before the furniture object. Song, after thousands of years, people used to pedal sitting high and produces a lot of beautiful and functional furniture, the golden age of Ming and Qing dynasty furniture is furniture, can be said to have reached peak levels.
Ming and the in Qing dynasty early furniture manufacturing unprecedented prosperity, roughly Shang can attributed to two a reasons, a is city Township of commodity economy General developed up, social fashion of pursuit also from another side stimulus has furniture of supply and demand number; another reasons may and shipping of open about, hard quality wood large influx, makes craftsman are has play of space, had phase manufacturing out in substantial degree and beautiful practical, aspects are beyond has Qian generation of furniture.
Shang dynasty has appeared more mature technique of japanning, and was applied to the case of beds, furniture decoration. On the unearthed pieces of lacquer ware, you can see the rich decoration, in addition to the red and black flower and inlay of ivory, turquoise, and its technology has reached very high levels.
The spring and Autumn period, the slave society to collapse, transition to a feudal society as a whole, to warring States period productivity greatly improved people's living environment improved accordingly, compared with previous generations, furniture manufacturing level has been greatly improved. Especially in the area of wood processing, there are skilled craftsmen such as the ban not only promoted the development of furniture and wood building also played on their talents. Thanks to advances in metallurgy technology, and improvement of ironmaking technology brought rapid change to the wood processing, there has been a wealth of manufacturing equipment and tools, such as an iron saw, hammer, drill, chisels, shovels, plane, and so on, for easy furniture manufacturing conditions. Legend has it that the saw was invented by Lu Ban, technological improvements also contributed to the improvement of furniture.
Qin Shi Huang United China, established a centralized feudal State, a series of reform measures to make political, economic and cultural have reached a whole new level. Huge epang Palace is Qin Shihuang building a landmark, glories as war and natural disasters ruined, luxurious furnishings and magnificent Palace can't find, we can only turn to historical records and literature to imagine that situation.
Han was still sat on the floor, indoor living bed, couch-centric, function of the bed not only for sleep, meals, conversations and other activities are also conducted on a bed, a large number of Han dynasty brick and stone reflects the scene. Slightly different bed and couch, bed above couch, wider than the bed. Positioned on the bed curtains also plays an important role in Royal summer mosquito avoidance, winter cold and role to beautify and shows sign of status, wealth. Is a symbol of caste system in the Han dynasty, Emperor of jade, Princes using wood or bamboo, and placed in front of the bed, played an important role in life, living. Considerable, from the emperor down to the people, used the case as an eating table, used for bamboo and writing at his desk.
With the frequent exchange of West, breaking a relative isolation of States. Hu at this time into our country, it is a form, such as Mazar, nes, later developed into a collapsible Mazar, Chair, and more importantly for people "sit on a pedal" laid the Foundation.
The Wei, Jin and the six dynasties to song and Yuan dynasties, thousands of years before and after. Changes in Chinese society have occurred during this intense, Wei, Jin, southern and Northern dynasties in dire, Tang dynasty, Li Tai Ping event, life thriving in the Song dynasty, Empire is vast, unprecedented. These dramatic changes in society brought about great changes, Yuan dynasty Italy traveller Marco Polo to the Majesty of the praises of the Eastern Empire and civilization of the East and the stark contrast to the darkness of the middle ages in Europe. During this period, Chinese people's lives and in the lives of Chinese furniture has undergone fundamental changes. "Sat on the" is Wei Jin yiqian Chinese inherent of habits, from Han period began, with things the national of Exchange, new of lifestyle incoming China, "pedal and sat" of form more convenient, and more comfortable, for Chinese by accept, this sitting of incoming and Buddhist of incoming has directly relationship, especially to Wei Jin and Northern and Southern dynasties yihou, a more colorful of secular life form began has.
Despite the end of Han dynasty to six dynasties, this time of political turmoil, war, life has a free but very open, artistic creation with enthusiasm. Struggling in the war is characterized by Buddhist afterlife fantasy and beyond mortal coats a licentious, reclusive mountain, Tao and the seven sages of the Bamboo Grove, it appears in the background. Buddhism is increasingly shengxing, promotes the construction of massive temples, grottoes, including furnishings, appliances are subject to external influences, appeared piers, chairs, stools and other furniture.
Sui dynasty lasted for 37 years, nothing special in the furniture, also saw no change. Real boom was in the Tang dynasty. Appeared vigorous and enterprising spirit of the early Tang dynasty, war and displacement in the country for a long time after the reunification, people's enthusiasm to outbreaks. "Administration of the Zhenguan" bring social stability and cultural prosperity. Tang dynasty furniture in this social context, showing its characteristic thick, plump, large, stable, weight and momentum are broad, but the lack of change in both technology and varieties. Rich nobles used furniture is relatively abundant, especially in the decoration is more ornate, realism reflected in the paintings of the Tang dynasty. This complex carved period furniture and lacquer painting, painted with floral designs.
Can see from the Dunhuang murals during the Tang dynasty drum piers, Lotus, rattan Pier, you can also see simpler shapes of the foot, curved foot, tilt head, and so on. Literati and the pursuit of elegant and clean, so this time vertical screen, screen and more plain without decorations. Bed types that are no more changing inherited from previous generations of shapes, box beds, Panel beds, platform beds, separate bed.
Late Tang and five dynasties, scholar-officials and noble family in pursuit of luxury living for the fashion, many major hosted social events by painting master record, this gives us research, visits to people's life circumstances provide extremely reliable image information. Frenzied five painters of the Night Revels of Han Xizai is a good example of pictures to show us clearly the use of five dynasties period furniture, including straight-back chairs, text, screens, bed, couch, Pier, and so on. Complete simple forms also indicate to us the forms in the early Ming-style furniture, laying the Foundation for furniture the perfect stage in China.
Starting from late in the 10th century, Song dynasty picture of its economic development, the prosperity of the city.
Song when the furniture is rather common, high, high tables, a few also occurred, sit on a pedal has become a fixed posture, in Chinese history, daily life changes determined by sitting. Town life construction boom of high-end houses, gardens, build furniture to decorate a room becomes inevitable, which provide a good social environment for the development of the furniture industry.
Song dynasty and Liao, Jin lasted for more than 300 years later, furniture went through a period of development, high-grade furniture system has been developed and perfected, furniture's increasingly diverse styles more attractive. Table class, for example, can be divided into square table, bar, Music Desk, dining table, table, folding table, use more and more fine. Chair has become pretty sound in the Song dynasty, on the back straight, take the brain early fold, block the Backboard support the human back strength. Armchair shapes perfect, rounded back, to adapt the body curves. Improved form the top of the bed. Some kinds of development with high, low, fixed a few curly, straight legs, legs and other forms. Furniture in the style of the Song dynasty took on characteristics of tall, beautiful, decorated with inherited five styles, tend to be simple, elegant, and is given a large area the engraving decoration, only local ornament to its finishing touch effect.
In contrast, founding time is relatively short in the Yuan dynasty, rulers adopt the policy is the Chinese system, so not only in the political and economic system, followed the song, Liao and Jin dynasties, furniture also bingcheng song system, process technology and design are not big changes. But it is worth mentioning that during this period there were drawers tables as a convenient storage box drawer opened, and is a great invention, it greatly increases the effect of furniture. And this new thing probably owes more to national exchanges and cultural fusion.
The Wei, Jin and the six dynasties to song, Liao, Jin and Yuan the past thousands of years, constant turnover of the Chinese dynasty, which had two large scale integration, social orientation has been run along feudal Confucian rule lines. While the West is dark ages, and when trying to go to a new enlightenment, feudal dynasty in China in constant turnover, end of the Yuan dynasty, followed the will be a more secular, more diverse era.
Classical Chinese furniture has a long history, Ming and Qing dynasties on the peak, especially in the Ming-style furniture for the people respected. And now classical furniture according to the different local customs, works, materials and styles are distinct. "Beijing", "Sue", "doing" the most representative. Beijing-a atmosphere of many Royal and rough in the North; Sue show delicate elegance and literati in Jiangnan; broadly adopted Western-style wooden long, combination of Groovy.
"Beijing" furniture refers to furniture made in Palace workshops in Beijing, dominated by hardwoods such as rosewood, pear and mahogany. As the Court has strong financial and material resources, ornate furniture and materials, decorative go set with gold, silver, jade, ivory, rare materials such as enamel, treasure, modeling the atmosphere, sophisticated technology, no other furniture than. Due to the overly extravagant, carved heavy, bulky, decorative than practical, artistic level slightly, this is the biggest regret Beijing for furniture.
"Su" furniture refers to Suzhou as the center of production of furniture by the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Sue furniture has a long history and tradition, is the birthplace of Ming-style furniture, famous Chinese and foreign furniture of the Ming-style furniture that sue. Sue as a furniture style and elegant simplicity, elegant, smooth lines, moderate, specializing in timber. Su furniture is characterized by forms of light, small and Jane on the decorative, show, simple, smooth lines, elegant, more literary qualities.
"Wide" artistic furniture, usually seen wide furniture are all made of the same wood, never doped species of wood. Very generous in terms of materials, at section with aniseed and without lacquer, wood bare. Cantonese furniture carved deep-June, Miller, and considerably under the influence of Western architectural sculpture, carving deeper. BACK
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